Chapter 1

1.2 The conversion of bp to Mb is 1,000,000 bp is equal to 1 Mb. Therefore the gene/Mb ratio is: 2233 genes/Mb mitochondria, 750 genes/Mb rickettsia, 829 genes/Mb chloroplasts, 979 genes/Mb cyanobacteria. The smaller genome size is the result of some DNA being transferried to the nuclear genome.

1.3 An estimate of the total number of bases that would encode all the variable domains is 6.00 x 10^10 to 6 x 10^12. (10^8 total antibodies x 2 variable domains x 100 aa/variable domain x 3 bp/aa to 10^10 total antibodies x 2 variable domains x 100 aa/variable domain x 3 bp/aa)

1.5 I would identify tRNA genes in a newly assembled genome by using an algorithm to search for sequences where there are three sets of pairs of complementary DNA in a row meaning there would be the typically 3 hairpin loops that a tDNA forms.

1.7 a) If the goal of a $1,000 genome is attained, it would cost $700 million to sequence the 700,000 babies born in the UK each year. The annual budget of the UK National Health Services is $US 1,905,720,000 (based upon current conversion from British Sterling Pounds), which would mean that approximately 36.7% of the years operating budget would be required for the sequencing.

1.8 Arguments for your DNA in your country's DNA database. (1) This information could allow researchers to better understand inheritable traits (assuming everyone must provide their DNA) (2) Researchers would be able to get a better idea for common genetic makeup taking into account various polymorphisms. This information could then assist researchers in developing medicine and treatment for patients based on the global standard found. (3) This may greatly assist law enforcement in a number of situations.

Arguments against your DNA in your country's DNA database. (1) Some people may think this is an invasion of privacy and just too much information for the government to have (2) There may be some concerns over the availability of this information (who is able to see your genetic information and then laws concerning people being able to see your information) (3) Similarly, there could be the concern of people breaking into the database and looking/analyzing your DNA. This could pose a security threat if people can break into these database and steal peoples' identity. (4) May enable government to classify people into groups based on genes they have or don't have (5.) Also your DNA could be used or analysed in a study that you have objections to (moral, social, etc.)


Arguments for the use of animals for testing in drug development: the use of animals is justified, if the results are used for improving the improvement of the health of human beings and/or animals. The amount of stress and a possible damange of animails is then, in comparison to the benefits, acceptable.

arguments against the use of animals for testing in drug development: animals have the same moral rights (including the right for life) as a human being, therefore it is not possible to put the interest of humans above the interests of an animal.

Restrictions that might be imposed that could mitigate any of the arguments against the use of animals in testing: the 3R concept:

  1. Replacement: the replacement of animals with other methods- f.e.: in vitro cultures
  2. Reduction: diminishing the number of animals used for experiments- careful choosing of the number of animals used for gathering relavant results
  3. Refinement: the refinement of the procedures, which the animals have to endure.
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